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Youth, pp 175-196

1  For "Crack babies" see Sandra Blakeslee, "Adopting Drug-babies: A Special Report; Child-Rearing is Stormy when Drugs Cloud Birth," New York Times, May 19, 1990, 1(1); See also: Barry Glassner, The Culture of Fear: Why Americans are Afraid of the Wrong Things.(New York: Basic Books, 1999) 80-84. For "superpredators," see: Peter Annin, "Superpredators Arrive," Newsweek, January 22, 1996,57; William Bennett, John DiIulio, and John Walters, Body Count: Moral Poverty. and how to win America's war against crime and drugs(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996) 27; Michele Ingrassia, "Life Means Nothing," Newsweek, July 19, 1993, 16.

2  John DiIulio, "Fill Churches, Not Jails: Youth Crime and 'Superpredators.'" Testimony before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence, U.S. Senate. February 28, 1996 (accessed July 19, 2004).

3  Bennett, et al., Body Count, 21, 22, 56-59.

4  Ibid., 18-81.

5  Kim Brooks, Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg, "School House Hype: 2 Years Later," The Justice Policy Institute. (accessed June 24, 2004).

6  Rachel Graves, "Backlash Growing over Zero Tolerance," Houston Chronicle, April 18, 2004, 1a.

7  Mike Males, "Criminalization of Youth," Unpublished manuscript on file at PRA, 1.

8  Ibid., 4-5.

9  Ibid., 5.

10  Jane Twomey, "Media Fuels Fear about Youth Crime; Perception: If Juvenile Crime is at its Lowest Level in Decades, why do so Many Americans Believe Otherwise?" Baltimore Sun, May 13, 2001, 1C.

11  Sandra Blakeslee, "Adopting Drug Babies: A Special Report; Child-Rearing is Stormy When Drugs Cloud Birth," New York Times, May 19, 1990, 1(1).

12  Martha Shirk, "Disaster in Making: Crack Babies Start to Grow Up," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 September 18, 1990, 1A.

13  George Will, "New York: A Failed City for Crack Babies, $2 Billion in this Decade." Op-ed, New York Times, 26 May 26, 1991, D7.

14  New York Times, "The Cost of not Preventing Crack Babies." Op-ed, , October 10, 1991, A26.

15  Deborah Frank, et. al. ,"Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure," Journal of the American Medical Association 285 (12): 1613-1625. Wendy Chavkin,. "Cocaine and Pregnancy-Time to Look at the Evidence," Journal of the American Medical Association 285 (12): 1626-27.

16  Drew Humphries, Crack Mothers, Pregnancy, Drugs, and the Media (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999), 21, 42-47.

17  Lynne Duke, "D.C. Revises Infant Death Figures/Figures; Rate for 6 Months Remains More Than Twice National Average," Washington Post, December 16, 1989, B3.

18  Ana Teresa Ortiz and Laura Briggs, "The Culture of Poverty, Crack Babies, and Welfare Cheats," Social Text 21 (3): 39-57.

19  Humphries, Crack Mothers, 42.

20  Mary McGrory, "High-Flying Ways to Fund Drug Fight," Op-ed, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 12, 1989, 3b.

21  Ortiz and Briggs, 39.

22  Ibid., 47.

23  Charles Krauthammer, "Crack Babies Forming Biological Underclass," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 30, 1989, 3B.

24  John DiIulio, "Fill Churches, Not Jails: Youth Crime and 'Superpredators'," Brookings Institution, 1996. (accessed July 29, 2004).

25  James Q. Wilson, 1995. Crime (San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1995), 492.

26  Bennett, DiIulio, and Walters, 26.

27  Eugene Rivers, "Boston Can Lead the Nation in Saving High-risk Youths." Op-ed, Boston Globe, 5 October 5, 1999, A-17.

28  Vincent Schiraldi,"Will the Real John DiIulio Please Stand Up?" Washington Post, February 5, 2001. ( accessed September 17, 2004).

29  Bennett, DiIulio, and Walters, 27.

30  Pamela Hollie, "Gang Fights Transform Hollywood Boulevard into a War Zone," New York Times, July 18, 1981, 6; Lou Michel, and Tony Plowden, "Mean Streets; Wearing the Colors of the Big-city Crips and Bloods," Buffalo News, July 2, 2000,1A; Bill Rubin,. "Gangs aren't Isolated Threat: Staying in Denial Risks Letting Them take Root," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 20, 2004, 8JJ; Sherry Parmet, "Boy, 16, is Wounded in Shooting on Way to School," San Diego Union-Tribune, March 2, 2000, B1, B2.

31  James Alan Fox, "Ganging Up," Op-ed, Boston Globe, December 1, 2003, A15.

32  Tom Hayden, 2004. Street Wars: Gangs and the Future of Violence ( New York: The New Press, 2004), 265-266.

33  Ibid., 338-9.

34  Ibid., 93.

35  Ibid.

36  April Lynch, "After the Riots, L.A. Gangs Clinging to a Shaky Truce," San Francisco Chronicle, June 2, 1992, A1.

37  Hayden, Tom, "Peace in the Streets," AlterNet. See: (accessed August 19, 2004).

38  Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh, "The Social Organization of Street Gang Activity in an Urban Ghetto," The American Journal of Sociology (1997) 103 (1): 82-111.

39  Peter F. Episcopo, and Darrin L. Moor, "The Violent Gang and Terrorist Organizations File," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October, 1996., (accessed September 17, 2004); Celeste Fremon, "View from Parker Center: A One-on-one with Police Chief William Bratton," LA Weekly, 10-16 January 10-16, 2003,, (accessed September 17, 2004).

40  Diana Gordon, The Return of the Dangerous Classes: Drug Prohibition and Policy Politics, (New York: W. W. Norton , 1994) 26.

41  Jerry Markon, "House Backs New Center for U.S. Gang Crackdown," Washington Post, July10, 2004, B1.

42  (No Author Listed) "CAL/GANG Executive Summary." National Association of State Chief Information Officers. See: (accessed August 19, 2004).

43  Merlin Chowkwanyun,. "California 'Anti-Terror' Databases Unchecked," ZNet, July 3, 203.

44  Barry Glassner, The Culture of Fear: Why Americans are Afraid of the Wrong Things (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 70.

45  (No author listed), "Zero Tolerance Rules are Simply Draconian," Op-ed, Orange County Register, September. 30, 1999.

46  Russ Skiba and Reece Peterson, "The Dark Side of Zero-Tolerance: Can Punishment Lead to Safe Schools?" Phi Delta Kappan (1999) 80(5): 372-382., 374.

47  Ibid., 373.

48  Robert Schwartz and Len Reiser, "Zero Tolerance as Mandatory Sentencing," in Zero Tolerance: Resisting the Drive for Punishment in Our Schools, edited by William Ayers Rick Ayers, and Bernardine Dohrn, (New York: The New Press, 2001), 127.

49  Harvard Civil Rights Project and The Advancement Project, "Opportunities Suspended: The Devastating Consequences of Zero Tolerance and School Discipline." Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, June, 2000, available at, 3.

50  Ibid., 16.

51  Ibid., 13.

52  Ibid., 15.

53  Anthony Rebora, "No Child Left Behind." Education Week on the Web. (accessed August 26, 2004).

54  The White House.,"No Child Left Behind.," White House Press Release. (accessed July 22, 2004).

55  U.S. Department of Education, "Outline of Programs and Selected Changes in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001," See 2002, (accessed July 22, 2004).

56  Bobby Iafolla, "School-to-Prison Pipeline: Part 1. Do Not Pass Go. Go Directly to Jail." The Weekly Dig, (accessed June 16, 2004).

57  The Sentencing Project, "Facts about Prisons and Prisoners," (accessed June 16, 2004).

58  Ibid.

59  Johanna Wald and Daniel Losen, "Defining and Redirecting a School-to-Prison Pipeline" (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Civil Rights Project, 2003). Framing Paper for the School-to-Prison Pipeline Research Conference on May 14, 2003.

60  Edwin Feulner, "Zero Tolerance? Try Zero Wisdom," The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., June 29, 2001. (accessed December 29, 2004).

61  Peter Greenwood, "Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice," In Crime: Twenty-eight Leading Experts Look at the Most Pressing Problem of our Time, ed. James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia, (San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press1995) 98-99; Wilson, Crime, 492.

62  James Wooton and Robert Hack, "How State and Local Officials Can Combat Violent Juvenile Crime: Backgrounder #1097," (Washington, D.C.: Heritage Foundation, 1996) (accessed August 10, 2004); See also: Mary Kate Cary, "How States Can Fight Violent Crime: Two Dozen Steps to a Safer America: Backgrounder #944," (Washington D.C.: Heritage Foundation, 1993) (accessed August 10, 2004).

63  Mark Soler, "Public Opinion on Youth Crime and Race," Building Blocks for Youth, 2001, (accessed August 11, 2004).

64  Patricia Allard and Malcolm Young, "Prosecuting Juveniles in the Adult Court: The Practitioner's Perspective." The Sentencing Project, 2002, (accessed July 3, 2003).

65  Ibid.

66  Ibid.

67  David Zahniser, "Mayor, Police Chief Seeks Law Aimed at Gang Intimidation," Copley News Service, February 11, 2003.

68  (No author listed), "Myths and Facts about Youth and Crime," Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice, (accessed August 11, 2004).

69  Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), "Violent Crime Victimization" Statistical Briefing Book, 1999. See: (accessed August 12, 2004).

70  (No author listed), "Curfew is Unnecessary, Ineffective." Op-ed, St. Petersburg Times, October 8, 2000, 2.

71  David Brown et al., "Workforce and Youth Development for Young Offenders." Justice Policy Institute, 2002, (accessed August 12, 2004).

72  Anthony Mawson et. al., 2002. "Preventing Lethal Violence in Schools: The Case for Entry-Based Weapons Screening," Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law (2002)27 (2), 243-260.

73  Maureen Downey, "Community spirit brings school safety." Op-ed, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, September 12, 1999, G4.

74  Nicole Davis, "Schoolground or Police State?" Colorlines, 2 (4) 2000.

75  John DiIulio, 1996. "Fill Churches, Not Jails: Youth Crime and "Superpredators." Testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Youth Violence, 28 February. See also: Hymowitz, Kay. 2000. "What's Wrong with the Kids?" City Journal 10 (1).

76  (No author listed). 2002. "Examining Religion as a Preventative Factor to Delinquency." Criminal and Juvenile Justice Consortium. See: (August 17, 2004).

77  U.S. government census statistics 1998; Department of Health and Human Services, "Percentage Distribution of Children in United States by Number of Parents in Household, see Family Structure,; See also, N. Zill, D. Morrison, and M. Coiro, "Long Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Parent-Child Relationships: Adjustment and Achievement in Early Adulthood," Journal of Family Psychology, 1993, 7(1):91-103; Michael Sniffen, "Study: Almost 1.5 Million Children have Parent in Prison," Associated Press, August 30, 2000.

78  (No author listed). "Children of Incarcerated Parents." Center for Community Alternatives. See: (accessed August 18, 2004).


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