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Overview, Pp 15-41


2  Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (New York: Penguin Classics,1981). Hobbes envisioned the world as "a war of all against all."

3  See Katheryn Russell-Brown, Underground Codes: Race, Crime, and Related Fires (New York: New York University Press, 2004).

4  See Marc Mauer, Race to Incarcerate (New York: The New Press,1999), 118-141.

5  John J. DiIulio, Jr., "My Black Crime Problem and Ours," City Journal (Spring, 1996).

6  Ibid., 1.

7  Katherine Beckett and Theodore Sasson, The Politics of Injustice: Crime and Punishment in America (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2004), 185-186.

8  Ibid., 173.

9  Ted Gest, Crime and Politics: Big Government's Erratic Campaign for Law and Order (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 64-65.


11  George Lakoff, Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think (Chicago: University of Chicago, [1996] 2002).

12  Axel R. Schaefer, "Evangelicalism, Social Reform and the US Welfare State, 1970-1996,", in David K. Adams and Cornelius A. van Minnem, eds., Religious and Secular Reform in America: Ideas, Beliefs, and Social Change (New York: New York University Press, 1999, 249-273). I have used slightly different language to describe the sectors identified by Schaefer.

13  Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford, 2000).

14  Thomas Frank,. What's the Matter with Kansas?: How Conservatives Won the Heart of America (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004).

15  Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom: History and Apocalypse in the Puritan Migration to America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 5.

16  Weber, Max. [1905] 2000. The Protestant Ethic and the "Spirit" of Capitalism and Other Writings. New York: Penguin Books/Putnam.

17  Diamond, Sara. 1996. Facing the Wrath: Confronting the Right in Dangerous Times. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press. p. 52

18  Unitarianism emerged as a theological tendency before the name itself was formalized.

19  Jorns, Auguste. 1931. The Quakers as Pioneers in Social Work. Trans. Thomas Kite Brown. New York: MacMillan, pp. 162-171. See also, Whitney, Janet. 1936. Elizabeth Fry: Quaker Heroine. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.

20  Jorns, op. cit., p. 170.

21  Ammerman, Nancy T. 1991. "North American Protestant Fundamentalism," in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms Observed, The Fundamentalism Project 1, pp. 1-65. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

22  Martin, op. cit., p. 6.

23  Himmelstein, Jerome L. 1990. To the Right: The Transformation of American Conservatism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

24  Greven, Philip. 1991. Spare the Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and the Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse. New York: Knopf, p. 198.

25  Ibid., p. 62.

26  Greven, op. cit., p. 199.

27  Lakoff, op. cit., p. 201.

28  Ibid., p. 203.

29  Ibid.

30  Garland, D. 1990. Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 20.


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